Sebangau National Park : The Swamp Forests in Borneo
Spread out between the Katingan and the Sebangau Rivers, just at the outskirt of Palangkaraya, the Sebangau National Park in Central Kalimantan is one of the last remaining peat swamp forests in Borneo. The vast national park covering approximately 568,700-hectare is home to over 6,000 orangutans, forming one of the world’s largest populations in the wild. Aside from its rich biodiversity, the forest is also known for its special ecosystem: that of the black water ecosystem. This particular ecosystem was created from decomposing organic matter living in these peat swamps, resulting in the blackened water and the unique variety of organisms.
The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Indonesia campaigned to establish the park, which was gazetted in 2004, and the organization remains at the forefront at involving nearby residents in low-impact logging, home industry, reforestation and ecotourism. Thus, providing balance harmony between the preservation of Orangutan and the community.
Latest developments based on genetic research by Zhang (2001) and Taxonomy by Groves (1999) revealed that the Borneo Orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, is of a different species from the Sumatran Pongo abelli. The Borneo orangutan has a distinctive body shape with very long arms that may reach up to two meters in length. They have a coarse, shaggy reddish coat and grasping hands and feet. They are highly sexually dimorphic, with adult males being distinguished by their large size, throat pouch and flanges on either side of the face, known as cheek pads. The Borneo orangutan travels on the ground more than its Sumatran counterpart. It is theorized this may be partly because here there is no need to avoid large predators as found in Sumatra including the Sumatran Tigers.
Aside from being the home of huge communities of orangutans, the park is also habitat to 35 species of mammals, 116 species of Borneo typical birds, 36 species of fish, and about 166 species of flora. Some of the particular animals that roam freely in these forests include: orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), Southern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), kelasi (Presbytis rubicunda), proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus), Sun Bears (Helarctos malayanus), Forest cats (Felis bangalensis), Chipmunks (Exilisciurus axilis), hornbills or enggang gunung (A. undulatus), enggang gading (Buceros vigil), enggang badak (Buceros rhinoceros), Swamp Heron (Ciconia stormi), pecuk ular (Anhinga melanogaster), cangak merah (Ardea purpurea), cangak laut (Ardea sumatrana), Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis), Catfish (Clarias sp.), papuyu (Anabas testudineus), kakapar (Belontia hesselti), and sambaling (Betta sp). Among some of the flora found in the park are: jelutung (Dyera lowii), belangeran (Shorea belangeran), pulai (Alstonia angustifolia), ulin wood, Deer Horn orchids and black orchids.
Amidst the peat swamp forests, the National Park also offers beautiful scenery of pristine hills. From the top of Bukit Batu or Rock Hill, one overlooks the Sebangau National Park and all its fascinating scenery. The hill is also the perfect spot for bird watching since white Herons, swallows, Green Cucaks, Keruang, Kepodang, and Bald Eagles are among some of the exotic birds that nest here on the hills. A long and challenging trek is available at Bukit Bulan or the Moon Hill. As trekkers make their way up the hill, they will be presented with refreshing trails along the Sungai Bulan, or Moon River. A unique ecosystem of peat swamp and granite rocks is observable at Bukit Kaki or Foot Hill. The granite rockz cause a dry environment, and thus the trees are different from those in the surrounding environment.
In the Sebangau National park are also crystal clear, refreshing, fresh water lakes. These lakes are also habitat to various species of fish and other distinct flora and fauna, and are the best place to watch nature‘s process at its finest. These magnificent lakes are known as Bulat Lake (Round Lake), Punggualas Lake, Jalan Pangen Lake, and Panjang Lake (Long Lake).
Along with Tanjung Puting, the Sebangau National Park is a perfect representation of the pristine tropical forests of Central Kalimantan. Guarded by endless preservation efforts and the ancient local wisdom of the Dayak, these tropical forests form an important part of the world’s environment, supplying vital oxygen for the entire planet.
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